Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2019, Page: 109-115
The Impact of Nutrient and Heavy Metal Concentrations on Waste Dump Soils in Mangrove and Non-mangrove Forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria
Aroloye Ofo Numbere, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria
Received: Jul. 18, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 13, 2019;       Published: Aug. 23, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.jenr.20190803.12      View  68      Downloads  14
Abstract
This study is based on the comparison of nutrient and heavy metal concentrations in soils from waste dump sites in mangrove and non mangrove forest i.e. municipal areas. Nine soil samples were collected randomly at three sites in each location with soil auger, 5 cm below the top soil (n = 18). The soils were placed in polyethylene bags and sent to the laboratory for physicochemical analysis for nutrients: Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Phosphorus (P) and Sulphate (SO4) and heavy metals: Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), and Cadmium (Cd) concentrations. The metals were measured by UV/visible spectrophotometric method using HACH DR 890 colorimeter (wavelength ~ 420 nm). The result indicates that there was no significant difference in heavy metal concentration between mangrove and non mangrove soils (F1, 88 = 0.24, P > 0.05). However, heavy metals were higher in non-mangrove than in mangrove soil. Zinc had the highest overall concentration (37.9±6.7 mg/l) followed by Pb (12.7±3.1 mg/l) and Cu (10.0±1.4 mg/l) in non-mangrove soil, whereas Cd was ten times higher in mangrove (0.4±0.2 mg/l) than in non-mangrove (0.04±0.03 mg/l) soil. The order of heavy metal concentration in mangrove soil is Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd and in non-mangrove soil is Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. In contrast, there was a significant difference in nutrient concentration between mangrove and non-mangrove soils (F1, 88 = 4.39, P < 0.05). Similarly, nutrient elements (Ca, K, Mg, Mn and P) were higher in non-mangrove soil than mangrove soils while SO4 was higher in mangrove than in non-mangrove soil, The order of nutrient concentration in mangrove soil is Ca>Mg>K>SO4>Mn>P and in non-mangrove soil is Ca>Mg>K>Mn>SO4>P. There was a slight a positive correlation between the nutrient and heavy metal concentration (R2 = 0.016, n = 90, P = 0.001). Results show that municipal soil is more polluted with industrial waste than mangrove forest soil as a result of high anthropogenic activities. Thus harmful metals from mangrove and non mangrove soils can enter the food chain and drinking water source leading to adverse health effect.
Keywords
Mangrove, Heavy Metals, Waste Dump, Nutrients, Rhizophora, Soil
To cite this article
Aroloye Ofo Numbere, The Impact of Nutrient and Heavy Metal Concentrations on Waste Dump Soils in Mangrove and Non-mangrove Forest in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, Journal of Energy and Natural Resources. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2019, pp. 109-115. doi: 10.11648/j.jenr.20190803.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
O. Oresanya, Waste Control Measures and Responsibility of a Waste Manager within the Framework of Recent Management Methods and Development in Municipal and Industrial Wastes. Paper presented at the Workshop on Effective Waste Management in Nigeria Organized by the Nigerian Society of Engineers, Lagos. (1998).
[2]
N. C. Duke, Mangrove floristics and Biogeography. In “In tropical Mangrove Ecosytems” (A. I Robertson and D. M Alongi, eds). American Geographical Union, Washington DC., USA. (1992) 63-100.
[3]
N. C. Duke, M. C. Ball, J. C. Ellison, Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in man mangroves. Global Ecol. and Biogeo. Letters 7 (1998) 24-47.
[4]
D. Rabinowitz, Mortality and initial propagule size in mangrove seedlings in Panama, The J. of Ecol. (1978) 45-51.
[5]
L. D. Lacerda, C. E. V. Carlvalho, F. K. Tanizaki, A, R. C. Ovalle, C. E. Rezende, The biogeochemisty and trace metals distribution of mangrove rhizopheres. Biotropica 25 (1993) 251-256.
[6]
K. Kathiresan, B. L. Bingham, Biology of mangrove ecosystems. Adv. in Mar. Biol. 40 (2001) 81-251.
[7]
U. L. Kaly, G. Eugelink, A. I. Robertson, Soil conditions in damaged North Queensland mangroves. Estuaries 20 (2) (1997) 291-300.
[8]
A. L. Ramanathan, Sediment characteristics of the Pichavarammangrove environment, South east coast of India, Ind. J. Mar. Sci., 26 (1993) 319-322.
[9]
K. R. Reddi, N. Jayaraju, I. Sunyakumar, K. Sreenivas, Tidal fluctuation in relation to certain physico-chemical parameters in Swarnamukk river estuary, East coast of India. Ind. J. Mar. Sci., 22 (1993) 232-234.
[10]
K. K. Satpathy, Seasonal distribution of nutrients in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, East coast of India. Ind. J. Mar. Sci., 25 (1996) 221-224.
[11]
P. S. Asha, K. Diwakar, Hydrobiology of the inshore waters of Tuticorin in the Gulf. J. Mar. Bio. Ass. India, 49 (2007) 7-11.
[12]
S. Zauyah, B. Juliana R. Noorhafizah, C. I. Fauzah, A. B. Rosenami, Concentration and speciation of heavy metals in some cultivated and uncultivated ultisols and inceptisols in Peninsular Malaysia, Super - Soil 3rd Austrlian New Zealand Soils Conference, University of Sydney, Austrlia; (2004).
[13]
R. R. Twilley, Coupling of mangroves to the productivity of estuarine and coastal waters. In: Coastal-Offshore Ecosystems Interactions: Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies 22. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. (1988) 155-180.
[14]
A. O. Numbere, Municipal solid waste disposal in mangrove forest: environmental implication and management strategies in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. In: Municipal solid waste management. IntechOpen. (2019).
[15]
L. D. Lacerda, W. Machdo, M. Moscatheli (2000). Use of mangroves in landfill management. Glomis Electronic Journal 1 (1) 1.
[16]
J. F. N. Abowei, F. D. Sikoki, Water Pollution Management and Control, Double Trust Publications Company, Port Harcourt; ISBN: 978-30380-20-16. (2005).
[17]
K. G. Boto, Nutrients and mangroves. Pollution in tropical aquatic systems, CRC Press (2018), 137-154.
[18]
A. O. Numbere, G. R. Camilo, Effect of pollution and seasonal changes on litter fall and 10 accumulation in mangrove forest (Rhizophora species) of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. J. of 11 Environ. Sci. and Tech., 11 (2) (2018) 86-94.
[19]
APHA, Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water, 19th edition, American Water Works Association water pollution control federation publication, Washington, DC. (1995).
[20]
F. S. Watanabe, S. R. Olsen, Test of an Ascobic Acid Method for Determining P in water and NaHCO Extracts from Soils. Soil Sci Amer. Pro. 29 (1965) 77-678.
[21]
M. Logan, Biostatistical design and analysis using R: a practical guide. John Wiley and 35 Sons, England (2010).
[22]
G. P. Quin, K. J. Keough, Experimental design and data analysis for bioogists. Cambridge University Press, London. (2002).
[23]
Development Core Team, (2013) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna Austria. (Accessed on December 2013).
[24]
C. Marchand, E. Lallier-Verges\, F. Baltzer, P. Alberic, D. Cossa, P. Baillif, Heavy metals distribution in mangrove sediments along the mobile coastline of French Guiana. Mar. Chem. 98 (1) 1-17.
[25]
R. J. Snowden, I. K. E. Ekweozor, The impact of a minor oil spillage in the estuarine Niger Delta. Mar Pollut Bull 18 (1987) 595-599.
[26]
G. N. Anaero-Nweke, A. P. Ugbomeh, I. K. E. Ekweozor, M. Moslen, N. Ebere, Heavy 4 Metal Levels in Water, Sediment and Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron from the 5 Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria and Their Human Health Implications. Int. J. of Mar. Sci. 6 8 (23) (2018) 186-194.
[27]
W. M. Haynes ed., (2015) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 95th Edition.
[28]
M. Varon-Lopez, A. C. F. Diaz, C. C. Fasanella, A. Durrer, I. S. Melo, E. E. Kuramae, F. D. Andreote, Sulphur-oxiding and sulphur-reducing communities in Brazilian mangrove sediments. Environmental Microbiology, 16 (3) (2014) 845-855.
[29]
Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), EIA of Belema gas injection and oil field development project. (1999) 9-10.
[30]
A. O. Numbere, The impact of oil and gas exploration: invasive nypa palm species and urbanization on mangroves in the Niger River Delta, Nigeria. In: Makowski, C; Finkl, C. (eds) threats to mangrove forests. Coastal Research Library, 25 (2018) Springer, Cham.
[31]
J. E. Damuth, Neogene gravity tectonics and depositional processes on the deep Niger Delta continental margin. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 11 (3) (1994) 320-346.
Browse journals by subject